The Galilee Declaration

The participants in the Galilee Second International Workshop on Medicine after the Holocaust pledge the following:

We unequivocally support the universal principles of the 2000 Declaration of the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust, namely:

  1. The Holocaust (Shoah) fundamentally challenged the foundations of civilization. The unprecedented character of the Holocaust will always hold universal meaning.
  2. The magnitude of the Holocaust, planned and carried out by the Nazis, must be forever seared in our collective memory.
  3. With humanity still scarred by genocide, ethnic cleansing, racism, anti-Semitism and xenophobia, the international community shares a solemn responsibility to fight those evils. Together we must uphold the terrible truth of the Holocaust against those who deny it. We must strengthen the moral commitment of our peoples, and the political commitment of our governments, to ensure that future generations can understand the causes of the Holocaust and reflect upon its consequences.
  4. We pledge to strengthen our efforts to promote education, remembrance and research about the Holocaust, both in countries that have already undertaken such initiatives and in those that choose to join this effort.
We unequivocally assert that a moral imperative compels all health professions to supplement the Stockholm Declaration as follows:
  1. Professionals from science, medicine and other healthcare and social science fields played decisive roles in justifying, developing and carrying out some of the most appalling atrocities of the Third Reich, including the compulsory sterilization and medicalized murder of Germans, Austrians and other lives deemed unworthy of living; unethical, brutal experimentation on hospital patients and prisoners; and the unprecedented persecution, including mass murder and the Holocaust – the unique, partially-medicalized genocide of Jews and many others.

    Health professionals were prominent among the Nazi perpetrators and their collaborators with these heinous crimes, which were ostensibly designed to improve the health of the German population. Most of them remained unrepentant long after the Nuremberg trials. Acknowledging these medical atrocities is a continuing responsibility for all health professionals, their societies, and institutions.

  2. We acknowledge that the destructive potential of science focused solely on knowledge acquisition and population health without care for individual human beings peaked during the Third Reich with its extreme dehumanizing political conditions and profound moral failures of its health care and scientific establishments. These failures pose a major challenge to contemporary medicine, and they compel us to ensure that the lessons of the Holocaust are integrated into the identities of present and future physicians and other health professionals.

  3. We share a commitment to encourage the study of the roles of health professionals in medical atrocities committed during the Nazi period, leading up to and including the Holocaust, and the many implications that this legacy holds for us for today. This study should also include the achievements in maintaining high professional and human standards by some physicians and other persons entrusted with health care during the Holocaust.

  4. We share the general obligation of humanity to remember all the victims of medical atrocities during the Nazi period including the Holocaust and to honor all those who stood against it. We also share a special obligation to prevent the abuse of power in our healing professions. We therefore believe in recognizing the unique and critical roles played by health professionals, remembering those who were their victims, and honoring those who held true to their healers' oaths in extreme circumstances.

  5. We share a commitment to shed light on the still obscured shadows of physicians and other health professionals, societies and institutions that perpetrated medical atrocities during the Nazi period. We will take all necessary steps to facilitate the opening of archives to ensure that all documents relevant to the role of medicine in the Holocaust are available to researchers.
We call on institutions of higher learning in all healthcare professions and allied fields to incorporate into their curricula courses and programs on medicine and the Holocaust and its implications for contemporary practice, research and healthcare policy, and to support each other in implementing this Declaration.
*emulating the Stockholm declaration

Sign The Galilee Declaration
First name: Last name:

Signatures received:

1. Stacy Gallin, Maimonides Institute for Medicine, Ethics and the Holocaust
2. Shmuel Reis, Center for Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
3. Miriam Ofer, Western Galilee College
4. Sheldon Rubenfeld, Center for Medicine after the Holocaust
5. Boaz Cohen, Western Galilee College
6. Beverley Chalmers, Kingston, Ontario
7. Shaul Shasha, Naharya, Israel
8. Susan Benedict, Medical University of South Carolina
9. Avi Ohry, Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University
10. Konrad Kwiet, Sydney University
11. Tessa Chelouche, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa
12. Barbara Hales, University of Houston- Clear Lake
13. Suzanne Rutland, Sydney University, Australia
14. Darren O'Brien, University of Queensland/University of Sydney
15. Kamila Uzarczyk, Wroclaw, Poland
16. Limor Mellul, Haifa University
17. Juliet Golden, University of Lower Silesia, Wroclaw Poland
18. Margalit Shlain, Beit Theresienstadt, Givat Haim Ihud, Israel
19. David Urion, Boston Children's Hospital; Harvard University
20. Esteban Gonzalez-Lopez, School of Medicine, Autonoma University of Madrid, Spain
21. Georges Hauptmann, Paris, France
22. Amit Varshizky, Israel
23. Noga Wolff, Israel
24. Milan Novak, Prague, Czech Republic
25. Rachel Herzog, Israel
26. Michael Beigel, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
27. Mayer Brezis, Jerusalem, Israel
28. Hedy Wald, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
29. Natalia Aleksiun, Touro College Graduate School of Jewish Studies
30. Michael Robertson, School of Public Health, The University of Sydney
31. Jacques Barth, TreeGenes Study
32. Stephanie Kaiser, Aachen University, Germany
33. Bruno Halioua, University Paris
34. Franziska Eckert, University of Tubingen, Germany
35. Felicitas Sohner, University of Dusseldorf
36. Zehavit Gross, School of Education, Bar Ilan University, Israel
37. Rosa Rios-Cortes, School of Medicine, Autonoma University of Madrid, Spain
38. Etienne Lepicard, Jerusalem, Israel
39. Daan de Leeuw, NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Amsterdam
40. Alexander von Lunen, University of Huddersfield, UK
41. Sara Bender, Israel
42. Dalia Ofer, Hebrew University, Israel
43. Annette Finley-Crosswhite, Society for the History of Navy Medicine, Old Dominion University, Virginia
44. Anat Livne, Ghetto Fighters' Museum, Lochamei Hagetaot, Israel
45. Matthew Wynia, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus
46. Rael Strous, Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University
47. Naomi Baumslag, Australia
48. George Weisz, Australia
49. Susan Miller, Houston Methodist Research Institute
50. Margit Berner, Vienna, Austria
51. Paul Weindling, Oxford Brookes, UK
52. Linda Shields, Australia
53. Kenneth Collins, Jerusalem, Israel
54. Astrid Ley, Sachsenhausen Memorial and Museum, Germany
55. Noa Gidron, Israel
56. Raya Kalisman, Ghetto Fighters' Museum, Lochamei Hagetaot, Israel
57. Claude Romney, Calgary, Canada
58. Matthew Fox, Center for Jewish Medical Ethics, Ben-Gurion University, Israel
59. Michael Grodin, Project on Ethics and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies, Boston University USA
60. Ashley Fernandez, Center for Bioethics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University
61. Nadav Davidovitch, Beer Sheva, Israel
62. Herwig Czech, Vienna, Austria
63. Thomas Foth, School of Nursing, University of Ottowa, Canada
64. Sabine Hildebrandt, Boston Children's Hospital; Harvard University
65. Hans-Joachim Lang, University of Tubingen, Germany
66. Michal Simunek, Prague, Czech Republic
67. Therkel Straede, University of Southern Denmark
68. Volker Roelcke, Giessen, Germany
69. Matthis Krischel, Germany
70. Dan Michman, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel
71. Dan Kaznelson, Caesarea, Israel
72. Raul Artal, Saint Louis University
73. John Ziegler, Sydney Children's Hospital
74. William Silvers, University of Colorado School of Medicine
75. Wiebke Lisner, Hanover, Germany
76. Anna von Villiez, Germany
77. Nachman Ash, Maccabi Health Services, Tel Aviv, Israel
78. F. Schneider, Aachen University, Germany
79. Elizabeth Toll, Brown University
80. Andrew Weinstein, Fashion Institute of Technology
81. Esther Cuerda Galindo, Madrid, Spain
82. Daniel Nadav, Tel Aviv University, Israel
83. Andrew Wisely, Houston, Texas
84. Anna Hajkova, University of Warwick, UK
85. Teresa Wontor-Cichy, Research Center, Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau
86. Jonathan Kelly, Project on Ethics and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies, Boston University USA
87. Erin Miller, Project on Ethics and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Jewish Studies, Boston University USA
88. Gabor Gazdag, Jahn Ferenc Hospital, Budapest, Hungary
89. Rami Neudorfer, Tel Aviv University, Israel
90. Benjamin Corm, Tel Aviv University School of Medicine, Israel
91. Allen Menkin, MIMEH
92. Arhea Marshall, Universität Tübingen
93. Katharina Günther, TOS
94. Tessa Chelouche, TechnionMedical School, Haifa, Israel
95. Agnieszka Zajaczkowska-Drozdz, Jagiellonian University, Center for Holocaust Studies
96. Sean Ryan, Self
97. Theodore Rosengarten, College of Charleston
99. Herbert Yoskowitz, Adat Shalom Synagogue
100. Florian Bruns, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany
101. Florian Bruns, Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany
102. Aaron Kheriaty, University of California, Irvine
103. Jason Wasserman, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine
104. Amy DeBaets, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine
105. Judy Lott, Baylor
106. John Belmont, Illumina, Inc
107. Heinrich Taegtmeyer, McGovern Medical School The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
108. Ahmad A Khleifat, King’s College London
109. Ivor Douglas, University of Colorado, USA
110. Fabrice Jotterand, Medical College of Wisconsin, USA
111. Robert Baker, Union College
112. John Lantos, Children's Mercy Kansas City
113. udo schuklenk, queen's university, kingston, ontario
114. Mircea Leabu, "Victor Babe?" National Institute of Pathology & University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila"
115. Katherine Taylor, Drexel University
116. Daniel Goldberg, Center for Bioethics & Humanities/University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
117. Daniel Sulmasy , Georgetown University
118. Kelly Dineen, Creighton University School of Law, Health Law Program
119. Arthur Caplan, NYU School of Medicine
120. James Zisfein, Lincoln Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA
121. Steven Joffe, University of Pennsylvania
122. Lawrence Zeidman, University of Illinois at Chicago
123. Rebecca Garden, Syracuse, NY, USA
124. Thomas Cole, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
125. Chalmers Clark, Drexel University
126. Michael Shapiro, Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School
127. Allan Jacobs, Coney Island Hospital
128. Dorian Wilson, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
129. Daniel Bitran, College of the Holy Cross
130. Jeffrey Berger, NYU-Winthrop
131. Edward Gabriele, Semper Vi Foundation & Journal of Health and Human Experience
132. Frederick Luthardt, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
133. Rosemary Flanigan, (emerita from Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO)
134. Bishop Joseph Menna, AIHM, Augustinians of the IHM/Diocese of St. Thomas Villanova Synoda Catholic Church
135. David Brenner, Texas A&M University
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138. F Daniel Davis, Geisinger Health System
139. Carmen Shamsianpur, March of Life
140. Jeffrey Devries, Beaumont Health
141. Marén Viehrig, University Hospital Tübingen
142. Raya Warner, Pharma-Care, Inc
143. Ulrich-Bernhard Maria Kieninger, Deutsche Zentrumspartei - ZENTRUM -; Stadtverband Mönchengladbach
144. Carol Rittner, RSM, Pennsylvania, USA
145. Arnulf u. Elke von Auer,
146. Satendra Singh, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India
147. Stephen I. Ternyik, Techno-Logos, Inc.
148. Ulrike Bernhardt, House of Hope
149. René Milfait, EJF-Sozialakademie Silberbach, GE-Czech Zusammenarbeit; theological ethics and human rights
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